The Holocaust Atlas

Welcome to the Holocaust Atlas. On this site we aim to give insight in the events leading to, during and after the Holocaust. In different subthemes we will discuss the different relevant topics. This site not only focuses on the Jewish victims of the Holocaust but also contains information about non-Jewish victims. Text is supported by pictures and maps, this makes it easier to grasp the full scope of the holocaust. Most of these maps are interactive, clicking locations gives more information about locations and links for further reading. Feel free to contact us with any feedback or questions.

Themes

hitler scaled
Pre -war Germany
wannsee scaled
The Holocaust & the Second World War
einsatzgruppen scaled
Eastern Europe
concentration camp scaled
Concentration camps
auschwitz scaled
Death camps

Holocaust timeline 1933-1339

  • 1879, Wilhelm Marr becomes the first proponent of racial anti-Semitism, blaming Jews for the failure of the German revolutions of 1848–49.
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  • 24 October 1917, The Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin take power in Russia with the October Revolution. The subsequent Revolutions of 1917-1923 cause fears of Communist expansion into Europe that would influence the European far right.
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  • 11 November 1918, World War I ends with the Compiègne Armistice after the German Empire collapses due to the Revolution.
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  • 7 May 1919, The Treaty of Versailles is presented to the German delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. Most Germans disapprove of the reparations payments and the forced acceptance of German war guilt entailed in Article 231.
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  • 16 September 1919, Adolf Hitler, having joined the German Workers’ Party, makes his first endorsement of racial anti-Semitism.
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  • 18 November 1919, Generalfeldmarschall Paul von Hindenburg gives testimony to the Weimar National Assembly blaming the loss of World War I on “the secret intentional mutilation of the fleet and the army” and made misleading claims that a British general admitted that the German Army was “stabbed in the back,” giving rise to the popular stab-in-the-back conspiracy theory.
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  • 24 February 1920, In a speech before approximately 2,000 people in the Munich Festival of the Hofbräuhaus, Hitler proclaimed the 25-Point Program of the German Workers’ Party, later renamed the National Socialist (Nazi) German Workers’ Party. Among other things, the program called for the establishment of a Pan-German state, with citizenship, residency, and other civil rights only reserved for ethnic Germans, explicitly excluding Jews and all non-Germans.
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  • 20 April 1923, The first issue of Der Stürmer, a highly anti-Semitic tabloid-format newspaper published by Julius Streicher, is released.
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  • 8 November 1923, Hitler organizes the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempted coup d’etat. Although Hitler is sentenced to 5 years in Landsberg Prison and the Nazi Party is briefly proscribed, Hitler gains public notice for the first time.
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  • 18 July 1925, Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf.
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  • July 1932, Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag, capturing 230 of the 608 seats in the German federal election of July, 1932.
  • 30 January, Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
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  • 27 February, The Reichstag fire. The subsequent Reichstag Fire Decree suspends the German Constitution and most civil liberties.
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  • 9 March, Dachau concentration camp, the first concentration camp in Germany, opens 10 miles northwest of Munich at an abandoned munitions factory.
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  • 21 March, Oranienburg concentration camp is opened at a former brewery in Oranienburg by a SA brigade near Berlin.
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  • 23 March, Enabling Act of 1933 enacted; lets Hitler rule by decree.
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  • 1 April, Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses begins.
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  • 7 April, Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, banning most Jews and Communists from government employment, is passed. Shortly after, a similar law affects lawyers, doctors, tax consultants, musicians, and notaries.
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  • 25 April, The Law for Preventing Overcrowding in German Schools and Schools of Higher Education severely limits Jewish enrollment in German public schools.
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  • 29 April, Gestapo (German Secret Police) established by Hermann Göring.
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  • 2 May, German trade unions banned and replaced by the German Labor Front under the leadership of Robert Ley.
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  • 10 May, Nazi book burnings begin. Books deemed “un-German,” including all works by Jewish authors, are consumed in ceremonial bonfires, including a large one on the Unter den Linden adjacent to the University of Berlin.
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  • 1 June, The Law for the Prevention of Unemployment provides marriage loans to genetically “fit” Germans.
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  • 22 June, Inmates from Düsseldorf begin arriving at Emslandlager.
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  • 14 July, The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, calling for compulsory sterilization of the “inferior.” On the same day German citizenship is revoked from Roma and Sinti in Germany, and the Nazi Party is made the only legal political party in Germany.
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  • 20 July, The Reichskonkordat is concluded after negotiations between Franz von Papen and Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, ensuring Nazi Germany legitimacy with the international community and allowing the government to gain the loyalty of German Catholics.
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  • 20 August, The American Jewish Congress begins the Anti-Nazi boycott of 1933.
  • 17 September, The Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden is established as the legal representative
  • body of German Jews under the leadership of Leo Baeck and Otto Hirsch.
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  • 22 September, The Reich Chamber of Culture is established, effectively barring Jews from the arts.
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  • 29 September, German Jews and Germans with any Jewish ancestry dating to 1800 are banned from farming under the Reichserbhofgesetz, and their land is redistributed to ethnic Germans.
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  • 4 October, Jews are prohibited from journalism under the Editor Law.
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  • 24 October-24 November, The government passes a law allowing “dangerous and habitual criminals” – including vagrants, alcoholics, the unemployed, and the homeless – to be interned in concentration camps. The law is later amended to allow for their compulsory sterilization.
  • 1 January, Hitler removes all Jewish holidays from the German calendar.
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  • 24 January, All Jews are expelled from the German Labor Front.
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  • April, Heinrich Himmler, who had become the leader of the entire German police force outside of Prussia the previous year, is appointed Reichsführer-SS. The Volksgericht is established to prosecute political dissidents.
  • 1 May, The Office of Racial Policy is established within the Nazi Party.
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  • 17 May, Jews lose access to statutory health insurance. The German American Bund holds a rally in Madison Square Garden.
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  • 9 June, The SD is established as the Nazi Party’s intelligence agency.
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  • 14 June, Hitler begins a purge of the SA and the non-Nazi conservative revolutionary movement through the SS under pressure from the Reichswehr. Hitler’s colleague Ernst Röhm, the former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher, and Gustav Ritter von Kahr are killed. The move guarantees Hitler military support, quashes his opposition, and enhances the power of the SS. It also begins an increase in the persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany.
  • 4 July, The Concentration Camps Inspectorate is established under Theodor Eicke.
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  • 2 August-19 August, Hitler becomes President of Germany upon the death of Paul von Hindenburg, and becomes an absolute dictator by merging the office with the Chancellor to become the Führer. All Reichswehr members swear the Hitler oath.
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  • 7 October, Jehovah’s Witnesses in Germany issue letters protesting the persecution of their religion and affirming their political neutrality.
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  • December, Himmler gains control of the Gestapo through his subordinate Reinhard Heydrich.
  • 1 April, Anti-Semitic legislation is expanded to the Saarland after the 1935 Saar status referendum.
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  • May, Jews are excluded from the Wehrmacht, military members are banned from marrying “non-Aryans”.
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  • 26 June, The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring is amended to institute compulsory abortion.
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  • 28 June, Paragraph 175 is expanded to prohibit all homosexual acts.
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  • 15 September, Nuremberg Laws are unanimously passed by the Reichstag. Jews are no longer citizens of Germany and cannot marry Germans.
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  • December, The SS Race and Settlement Main Office establishes the Lebensborn program.
  • 10 February, The Gestapo is given extrajudicial authority.
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  • 3 March, German Jewish doctors are banned from practicing on German patients.
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  • 29 March, The SS-Totenkopfverbände is established.
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  • 6 June, Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick authorizes the deportation of the Romani people to concentration camps such as Marzahn.
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  • June, Himmler becomes Chief of German Police, and establishes the Orpo, the Sipo, and the Kripo under SS control.
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  • 12 July, Concentration camp inmates are transferred to Oranienburg to begin construction on Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
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  • 1 August, The 1936 Summer Olympics open in Berlin, leading to a temporary abatement in open anti-Semitism.
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  • 28 August, Mass arrests of Jehovah’s Witnesses begin
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  • 7 October, A 25 percent tax is imposed on Jewish assets.
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  • 29 November, Minister of Agriculture Richard Walther Darré proclaims liberal democracy to have been invented by Jews.
  • 1937, Beginning of the Nazis’ policy of seizure of Jewish property through “Aryanization.”
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  • 27 February, The Kripo begins the first mass roundup of political opponents.
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  • 14 March,  Pope Pius XI publishes an encyclical, Mit brennender Sorge, condemning the Nazis and accusing them of violating the Reichkonkordat.
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  • July, The Degenerate Art Exhibition opens in Munich.
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  • 15 July, Buchenwald concentration camp opens in Ettersburg five miles from Weimar.
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  • 8 November, Der Ewige Jude exhibition opens in Munich.
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  • 14 December, Himmler issues a decree that the SS does not have to arrest suspects for a criminal act.
  • 12 March, Austria annexed by Nazi Germany (the Anschluss). All German anti-Jewish laws now apply in Austria.
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  • 24 March, Flossenbürg concentration camp is opened in Flossenbürg, Bavaria, ten miles from the border with Czechoslovakia.
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  • 26 April, Jews are required to register all property over RM 5,000 under the Four Year Plan
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  • 29 May, Hungary, under Miklós Horthy, passes the first of a series of anti-Jewish measures emulating Germany’s Nuremberg Laws.
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  • 13-18 June, The first mass arrests of Jews begin through Aktion Arbeitsscheu Reich
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  • 26 June, German and Austrian Jews are required to register their real estate with the government.
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  • 6-15 July, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt convenes the Évian Conference in Évian-les-Bains, France, to settle the issue of Jewish refugees, but only Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic allow more refugees
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  • 14 July, Manifesto of Race published in Fascist Italy, led to stripping the Jews of Italian citizenship and governmental and professional positions.
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  • 8 August, The SS opens the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex near Linz, and establishes DEST to operate a stone quarry.
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  • 31 September, The United Kingdom and France agree to allow Hitler to seize control of the Sudetenland under the Munich Agreement.
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  • 9–10 November, Kristallnacht
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  • 12 November, Jews are banned from buying and selling goods under Decree on the Elimination of the Jews from Economic Life, and are fined $400 million to repair damage from Kristallnacht.
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  • 15 November, All Jewish children are expelled from German public schools.
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  • December, German Jewish child refugees are allowed to emigrate to the United Kingdom and France through the Kindertransport program.
  • 24 January, Hitler directs Heydrich to establish the Central Office for Jewish Emigration.
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  • 14-16 March, Czechoslovakia is dissolved as Slovakia declares independence as a satellite state, and the Nazis occupy the remainder as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
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  • 21 March, The memel is annexed by Germany.
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  • 13 May, MS St. Louis sails from Hamburg to Cuba with 937 refugees, mostly Jews. Only 29 are allowed in. The rest, refused by Cuba, the United States and Canada are returned to Europe.
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  • June, The Wagner–Rogers Bill, which would have increased immigration quotas for German Jewish children, dies in committee despite endorsement from the Roosevelt administration.
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  •  1 September, The German invasion of Poland starts World War II in Europe.

Holocaust timeline during the war

  • 1 September, The German invasion of Poland starts World War II in Europe. Thousands of Polish Jews are killed by the SS-Einsatzgruppen during Operation Tannenberg.
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  • 2 September, Stutthof concentration camp is established near Danzig.
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  • 21 September, Heydrich orders all German Jews to be shipped to Poland and for all Polish Jews to be concentrated in major cities.
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  • October, Thousands of Jews are shipped from Vienna, Ostrava, and Katowice to the Lublin Reservation in Zarzecze, Nisko County.
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  • 26 October, All territory not directly annexed by Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union is placed under the Generalgouvernment.
  • April, Rudolf Höss visits Oświęcim to inspect its suitability as a concentration camp for Polish political prisoners and as a colony for German settlers in Lower Silesia. Himmler approves construction of Auschwitz concentration camp.
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  • 9 April, The German invasion of Denmark and the Norwegian Campaign begins.
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  • 30 April, The Łódź Ghetto, the first Nazi ghetto, is sealed.
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  • 10 May, The Battle of France begins, and Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg quickly fall under German control.
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  • May, Auschwitz I opens
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  • June, The National Assembly votes to surrender with the Armistice of 22 June 1940. Vichy France is established as a collaborationist state under Philippe Pétain and Pierre Laval.
  • 22 June, Under Operation Barbarossa Germany invades the Soviet Union. Einsatzgruppen A,B,C & D follow the frontline and murder Jews, communist and other “partisans”.
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  • 3 September, First gassings at Auschwitz using Zyklon B.
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  • 29–30 September, Babi Yar massacre of 33,771 people
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  • October 10, Field Marshal Walter von Reichenau of the German Sixth Army issues a secret memorandum ordering the Wehrmacht to approving violations of international law in the invasion of the Soviet Union.
  • 20 January, Wannsee Conference plans “final solution”.
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  • 27 March, first of at least 75,721 French Jews deported from France, to Auschwitz.
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  • 6 July, Anne Frank and her family go into hiding.
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  • 22 July, first deportation from Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka during Grossaktion Warsaw.
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  • 23 July-19 October, Treblinka death camp operates, 700-900 thousand Jews murdered.
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  • 19 November, first shipment of Jews from Norway.
  • 19 April– 16 May, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
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  • 2 August, Treblinka revolt
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  • 14 October, Sobibór revolt and escape
  • 19 March, German troops occupy Hungary
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  • early May, first transport of Hungarian Jews, to Auschwitz, began.
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  • 23 June, Red Cross representatives see elaborately staged Nazi propaganda ruse at Theresienstadt designed to portray camps as benign.
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  • 20 July, Attempt to assassinate Hitler fails
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  • 23 July, Majdanek, first major death camp liberated, by the advancing Soviet Red Army
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  • 1 August, Warsaw Uprising begins
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  • 4 August, Anne Frank and her family arrested and eventually deported to Auschwitz
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  • 7 October, Crematorium IV at Auschwitz destroyed in Sonderkommando uprising
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  • 25 November, Heinrich Himmler orders the gas chambers of Auschwitz destroyed as incriminating evidence of genocide.
  • 27 January, Auschwitz death camp liberated by the Soviets. Anniversary is observed as International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
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  • 11 April, Buchenwald liberated by the Americans.
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  • 15 April, Bergen-Belsen liberated by the British.
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  • 29 April, Dachau liberated by the Americans and Ravensbrück by the Soviets
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  • 30 April, Adolf Hitler commits suicide
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  • 5 May, Mauthausen liberated by the Americans
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  • 8 May, Theresienstadt liberated by the Soviet
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  • 8 May, VE day, Germany surrenders unconditionally
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  • 23 May, Heinrich Himmler commits suicide
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  • 20 November, start of the first Nuremberg trials, of 24 top Nazi officials
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