The greater Germanic reich
The holocaust was not a sudden decision made by Hitler and the nazis. Also their definitions of sub-humans and the ubermensch were the work of years of pseudo-science. Several think-tanks formulated the wish for lebensraum for the german people and the wish of racial purity. These wishes basically meant that all the Jews had to moved outside the german districts and the Slavic people were also to be moved or enslaved. When the war progressed the policies of forced resettlement changed into extermination of these people n.
Both the resettlement and killing of the Jewish and Slavic people were part of the same plan at the start of the war. This plan was called “generalplan ost”. All direct copies of this plan have been destroyed at the end of the war. However, many secondary documents and testimonies were found and recorded after the war. The “solution of the Jewish problem” became a separate plan after the german invasion of Russia. But both plan kept close relation and interaction with each other till the end of the war.
The Nazi ideology for the wish of racial purity, anti-semtism and lebensraum were formulated by the Ostforschung and Ahneerbe. These organization were the ideological thinking tanks of the Nazi regime. These organization formulated plans for the resettlement of Germans in the eastern part of Europe and Russia, called the generalplan ost. In total 6 different version of this plan existent. In total the plan involved the resettlement or death of 30 millions people in eastern Europe. For example:
- 80-85% of the Polish needed to be moved or killed
- 50-70% of the Czechs needed to be moved or killed
- 65-85% of the Russians in eastern Russia needed to be moved or killed
- 55-75 % of the ukrane and belarussian people needed to be moved or killed
Plan I contained the description of the scope of the planned Ostsiedlung in West prussia and Wartheland. The planned area should cover an area of 87,600 km², of which 59,000 km² are agricultural land. In this area about 100,000 settler farms were to be established on 29 hectares. In total, around 4.3 million Germans were to be settled in these areas; of which 3.15 million in rural areas and 1.15 million in urban areas. For this purpose, successively 560,000 Jews (100% of all persons of this ethnic group in the planning area) and 3.4 million Poles (44% of all persons of this ethnic group in the planning area) were to be removed. No estimates have been made on the total cost of the plan.
Plan II was the Basic article on “Land requirements for the necessary resettlement from the “old reich” with concrete requirement of 130,000 km² for 480,000 new, viable settler farms of 25 ha, with 40% usage for forest, Wehrmacht , reserve areas in the Wartheland and generalgouverment Poland.
Plan III contained the description of the scope of the proposed settlement in the Soviet Union with specific geographical demarcation of the individual settlement areas.
Plan IV: : “Gesamtplan Ost”, compiled in December 1941 by the planning group III B of the office III (SD-Inland) of the RSHA under SS-Standartenführer Dr.-Ing. Hans Elich . Content: Description of the scope of the proposed settlement in the Soviet Union and the Government General with specific geographical demarcation of the individual settlements.
Plan V: “Generalplan Ost” prepared on 28 May 1942 by the Institute of Agricultural and Agricultural Policy of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin. Content: Description of the scope of the proposed settlement in the Soviet Union with specific geographical demarcation of the individual settlement areas. The planned area was to cover 364,231 km², including 36 settlement bases and three settlement marks in the Greater Leningrad region (now Saint Petersburg), Crimea – Kherson region and the Memel – Narew region ( Białystok and Western Lithuania). Settlement farms with 40-100 hectares and large farms with at least 250 hectares were to be built here. The number of settlers needed was estimated at 5.65 million. For this purpose, about 31 million people from the planned area were deported or murdered to Siberia. The cost of the planning was estimated at 66.6 billion Reichsmark
Plan VI: Generalsiedlungsplan prepared in September 1942 by the planning office of the RKF. Content: Description of the scope of planned settlements in all conquered territories designated for this purpose with specific geographical demarcation of the individual settlements. The planned area should cover 330,000 km² with 360,100 farms. The number of settlers needed was estimated at 12.21 million people (including agricultural and forestry professionals: 2.859 million). For this purpose, about 30.8 million people were to be removed from the planned area. The costs of the planned measures were estimated at 144 billion Reichsmark.
The first province outside the German reich to be established was the general Gouvernement. After the invasion of Poland the german divided the polish territory up in several regions. The regions of west and east Prussia, danzig and warthegau were to become part of the greater Germany. The leftover regions formed the general Gouvernement.The general Gouvernement itself was divided up into 4 subregions, namely: Warschau, Lublin, Radom and Krakau. After the invasion of Russia a fifth region, named Galicia, was added.
The governor general was Hans Frank, with the individual region led by:
- Kraków District, led by SS-Brigadeführer Dr Otto von Wächter (between 26 October 1939 to 22 August 1942) and SS-Brigadeführer Dr Richard Wendler from 31 August 1942 to 26 Mai 1943
- Lublin District, led by Friedrich Schmidt (from 1939 to March 1940), Ernst Zörner (from 31 March 1940 to 10 April 1943) and Richard Wendler (from 27 Mai 1943 to July 1944)
- Radom District, led by Karl Lasch from 26 October 1939 to July 1941 and Ernst Kundt from September 1941 to 16 August 1945,
- Warsaw District, led by Ludwig Fischer from 26 October 1939 to 17 August 1945,
- Galicia District (from 1 September 1941), led by dr Karl Lasch from 1 September 1941 to 6 August 1942 and SS-Gruppenführer Otto von Wächter from 1 February 1942 to July 1944.
The General gourvenement, generalplan Ost and the Holocaust
The general gourvenement had 12.1 million inhabitats, of which 11.2 % were Jews. Later on the general gourvenement became a concentration location for Jews and therefore 860.000 Jews were deported to the Ghettos present in the Gourvenement. During the war the General gourvernement became a kind of collection places for those selected for extermination. The amount of food, shelter and supplies present in this region were inadequate to supply all the inhabitant. Many of the inhabitants died of malnutrition, for example: Jews only got a 170 kCAL diet during the second world war. Whereas the german themselves enjoyed a 2500 kCal diet.